|NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) is activity-based therapy that provides high frequency, wide pulse width, task specific stimulation to generate a motor output while increasing the central state of excitability in the spinal cord. Standardized tasks are selected based on lagging items on the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale which includes 3 lower extremity tasks, 4 trunk tasks, and 4 Upper Extremity tasks.
Turning on the central contribution to contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation, J. C. Dean, L. M. Yates, and D. F. Collins. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007 103:1, 170-176. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01361.2006
Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury, Cristina L. Sadowsky, Edward R. Hammond, Adam B. Strohl, Paul K. Commean, Sarah A. Eby, Diane L. Damiano, Jason R. Wingert, Kyongtae T. Bae & John W. McDonald. (2013) The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 36:6, 623-631,
Assessment of Functional Improvement Without Compensation Reduces Variability of Outcome Measures After Human Spinal Cord Injury. Andrea L. Behrman, PhD, PT, Elizabeth Ardolino, PhD, PT, Leslie R. VanHiel, PT, DScPT, Marcie Kern, PT, Darryn Atkinson, PT, Douglas J. Lorenz, PhD, Susan J. Harkema, PhD. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.04.027
Musculoskeletal Plasticity After Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Effects of Long-Term Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training.Richard K. Shields and Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Graduate Program in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa Submitted 8 November 2005; accepted in final form 7 January 2006. DOI: 10.1152/jn.01181.2005
Motor unit recruitment when neuromuscular electrical stimulation is applied over a nerve trunk compared with a muscle belly: triceps surae.J. Bergquist, J. M. Clair, and D. F. Collins. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01103.2010