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 Epidural Stimulation Timeline
2021
November 11
October 6
August 11
April 1
2020
December 24
October 22

Published in Frontiers of Neuroscience

We assessed the cardiac structure and function before and after spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) with task-specific interventions and found significant improvements to cardiac structure, systolic function, and diastolic function.

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October 22
October 20
August 4

Published in Experimental Physiology

Does long‐term epidural stimulation for normalizing cardiovascular function affect leg muscle properties?

  • Leg lean mass increased after long‐term epidural stimulation for cardiovascular function, which was applied in the sitting position and did not activate the leg muscles. Leg muscle strength and fatigue resistance, assessed in a subgroup of individuals, also increased.

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August 4
July 27
May 6
2019
December 20
February 25
February 4
2018
September 27
September 17
June 22
June 6
May 18
March 14
March 8
January 31
2017
October 26
October 11
August 9
July 3
2016
October 5
July 15
June 1
2015
October 22
September 10
August 13
August 6
July 24
January 8
2014
April 17
March 1
March 1

Published in American Psychological Society

Epidural Stimulation can activate both afferent and efferent pathways. A more localized set of electrodes within an electrode array, which allows more selective activation.

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2013
November 7
August 31
January 1

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • T4 motor and sensory complete
2012
October 16
September 7
September 6
2011
November 1

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • C7 motor complete
  • Sensory complete
August 1

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • T4 motor and sensory complete
May 20
May 20

Published in The Lancet

Task specific training with epidural stimulation may have reactivated previously silent spared neural circuits or promoted plasticity.

  • Case Study
    “Clinically” motor complete, sensory incomplete. Voluntary movement and standing with epidural stimulation only, after stand training.
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2010
September 30
May 3
2009
December 1

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • C7/T1 motor complete
  • Sensory incomplete
2008
May 8
May 8