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 Epidural Stimulation Timeline
2020

Published in the Frontiers of Neuroscience

We assessed the cardiac structure and function before and after spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) with task-specific interventions and found significant improvements to cardiac structure, systolic function, and diastolic function.

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Published in Experimental Physiology

Does long‐term epidural stimulation for normalizing cardiovascular function affect leg muscle properties?

  • Leg lean mass increased after long‐term epidural stimulation for cardiovascular function, which was applied in the sitting position and did not activate the leg muscles. Leg muscle strength and fatigue resistance, assessed in a subgroup of individuals, also increased.

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2014

Published in the American Psychological Society

Epidural Stimulation can activate both afferent and efferent pathways. A more localized set of electrodes within an electrode array, which allows more selective activation.

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2013

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • T4 motor and sensory complete
2011

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • C7 motor complete
  • Sensory complete

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • T4 motor and sensory complete

Published in The Lancet

Task specific training with epidural stimulation may have reactivated previously silent spared neural circuits or promoted plasticity.

  • Case Study
    “Clinically” motor complete, sensory incomplete. Voluntary movement and standing with epidural stimulation only, after stand training.
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2009

Proof of Principle

Motor Control Original Study 1

  • C7/T1 motor complete
  • Sensory incomplete